Cold Weather Precautions
When the skin or other tissue is exposed to cold temperatures, frostbite may occur. Exposure to extreme cold and wind, for a long period of time, increases the risk of cold injuries and frostbite.
What are the signs of frostbite?
|Cold Response||Mild Frostbite||Superficial Frostbite||Deep Frostbite|
|Sensation||Painful||May have sensation||Numb||Numb|
Prevention is the key.
- Wear warm multilayered, loose fitting dry clothes
- Wear a hat and gloves
- Avoid high, windy areas
- Stay warm through activities
- If you get wet, dry off quickly and change clothes
What is the treatment for frostbite?
- Move person to a warmer area
- Remove wet clothing and constricting jewelry
- Re-warm area in warm -104° (never hot) water, DO NOT RUB the area. Use warm cloths to involved areas (nose, ears) for 20 minutes.
- Apply dry, sterile dressing to frostbitten areas. Wrap each finger and toe separately.
Contact your healthcare provider for further treatment.
Hypothermia is a decrease in the core body temperature to a level at which normal muscular and brain functions are impaired.
Conditions Leading to Hypothermia
- Cold temperatures
- Improper clothing and/or wet clothing and equipment
- Fatigue, exhaustion
- Dehydration and/or poor food intake
- Alcohol intake -causes dilation of blood vessels leading to increased heat loss
What are the signs of hypothermia?
- Watch for changes and slowing of brain function;- fumbling around for things, falling or unsteady, not able to find the right words.
- Uncontrollable shivering
- Slurred speech
- Irrational behavior
- Pale skin and decreased pulse rate
- Reduce heat loss by adding layers of dry clothing and find shelter
- Call emergency help if needed
- Avoid alcohol, caffeine and tobacco/nicotine
Warm Weather Precautions
Overexposure to the sun can result in serious long term health problems. The National Safety Council reports that one in five Americans develop skin cancer. Do you know the risk factors? Do you understand how to protect yourself and your child year-round? According to the Sun Safety Alliance, melanoma (the deadliest form of skin cancer) kills one person every hour. Be prepared before you expose yourself or your child to the sun. Protect yourself and your child. Ask your school nurse for further information.
Heat exhaustion may happen if the body is not able to cool itself through sweating. Act immediately if the following symptoms occur: headache, dizziness, weakness, confusion or inability to think straight, upset stomach, vomiting, fainting or passing out and hot red sweaty skin, and a fever less than 104 F. Call 911 if fever over 104F, loss of consciousness or seizures occur. Do not leave the person alone. Heat exhaustion may progress to heat stroke and possible death.
Heat stroke is a medical emergency. Call 911 for help immediately. The symptoms may include: dry, pale skin with no sweating, temperature over 103 F, headache, confusion, seizures, unconsciousness. Begin assistance at once. Move the person to a cool, shaded area. Clear the area of objects if the person is having seizures. Lay the person on his or her side if nausea or upset stomach. Remove any heavy clothing. Cool the person's body with a cool mist of water or wiping the victim with a wet cloth or covering him or her with a wet sheet. Place ice packs under the armpits and groin area. Stay with the victim.
Clean Air Force
For information about air quality, conditions and forecasts and to become better informed about the ozone warnings in this community visit City Link.
How does the body react to rising temperatures and increased physical activity? One needs to know how to protect against heat related illness and keep the body cool. Understand how to prevent injuries.
- Acclimatize to heat gradually
- Pay attention to the humidity index
- Take regular breaks
- Water, water, water
- Measure water loss and replenish fluids
- Monitor how you feel frequently
- Know your vulnerabilities (poor condition, over weight, physical illness, medications)
- Be alert to the problem